People are quick to blame the last meal when they fall victim to food poisoning. They scour their feeble memories of the funny tasting mayo in the hoagie they just ate. More often than not, food poisoning simply doesn't strike you as quickly as you think.
It's all about retracing your steps. That lunch you just returned to the toilet? It's probably not the guilty party, only in the way of a previously eaten disaster.
The FDA has a great rundown of the typical food poisoning causes (foodborne disease-causing organisms, if you must), and the times they take to affect you. It often takes days to show symptoms of most types of food poisoning. It's not the food you ate yesterday, but even stuff you ate a week or a month ago!
What's your recompensation?
You may complain to the local health boards, but alas, there's millions of cases of food poisoning every year, of which the smallest percentage get reported. With 3,000 deaths reported due to food poisoning every year in the US, it's nearly statistically insignificant compared to the average 150,000 deaths per day.
My solution has always been to never dine with that restaurant ever again. When asked about it, give your honest reason as to why not, but I wouldn't go on any crusade to bad-mouth or slander the restaurant in question. This means keeping your one-star Yelp reviews to yourself as well; You aren't saving anyone with your information, only complaining about something no one can fix.